Python packages and modules
Creating and using a module
A Python module is simple a separate Python file containing code you wish to import into your main program.
If you have a file called
module1.py in the same folder as your existing project.
import module1 module1.cool_function()
from module1 import cool_function cool_function()
Creating and using a package of modules
A package of modules in Python consists of creating a folder to contain the files, where the folder name becomes the package name, and the Python filenames become your module names.
The only catch is the folder must contain a file called
__init__.py. The file can be empty, but it must exist.
So, with the following folder & file structure:
packageA/ __init__.py <-- empty file but must exist module1.py module2.py
In your application, you would import items as follows
import packageA.module1 packageA.module1.cool_function()
from packageA import module1 module1.cool_function()
from packageA.module1 import cool_function cool_function()
Publishing a package on PyPi
Want to share your amazing package with the rest of the Python world so they can install it with PIP? It’s quite easy to do!
Step 1 - Create your package
As detailed above
Step 2 - Put your package into the following folder structure
Folder structure of sharable package
containing_folder/ package/ __init__.py module1.py module2.py LICENSE.TXT README.MD setup.cfg setup.py
package/__init__.py file to contain a name variable
name = "example_pkg"
Step 3 - Build your PyPi required files
MIT License Copyright (c) 2018 Paul Baumgarten Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
[metadata] license_file = LICENSE.txt [bdist_wheel] # 1 = code supports Python 2 and 3 # 0 = not universial, Python 2 OR Python 3 # https://packaging.python.org/guides/distributing-packages-using-setuptools/#wheels universal=0
import setuptools with open("README.md", "r") as fh: long_description = fh.read() setuptools.setup( name="easyaspi", version="2018.3", author="Paul Baumgarten", author_email="firstname.lastname@example.org", description="A module intended to abstract away a lot of the complexity of using the GPIO and PiCamera for beginner programmers.", long_description=long_description, long_description_content_type="text/markdown", url="https://github.com/pypa/easyaspi", packages=setuptools.find_packages(), keywords='raspberrypi GPIO picamera beginner', classifiers=[ "Programming Language :: Python :: 3", "License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License", "Operating System :: OS Independent", ], install_requires=['rpi.gpio','picamera'], python_requires='>=3' )
Refer to https://packaging.python.org/tutorials/packaging-projects/ for the options of the setup() function.
Step 4 - Generate distribution files
Install setuptools and wheel if you don’t already have them
python3 -m pip install --user --upgrade setuptools wheel
Run this command in the folder that contains setup.py
python3 setup.py sdist bdist_wheel
This will create a
dist/ folder with two files
dist/ example_pkg-0.0.1-py3-none-any.whl example_pkg-0.0.1.tar.gz
Step 5 - Upload to PyPi
Sign up to PyPi for an account if you don’t have one
Install Twine if you haven’t previously done so
python3 -m pip install --user --upgrade twine
Use Twine to upload to PyPi
python3 -m twine upload dist/*
Congratulations, your package should now be available for the world to install via pip
pip install [your-package]